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Precursors distribution - Candi™

For the continuous reliable distribution of advanced low vapor pressure liquid precursors

Air Liquide developed the Candi™ range to transfer precursors from shuttle canisters to your point-of-use. The equipment allows continuous distribution at consistent pressure, including during shuttle canister change-out.

Candi™ range


The equipment is a solution applicable to the fields of atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

The Candi™ range allows liquid precursors distribution for:

  • Direct liquid injection (DLI)
  • On-board bubblers
  • Vaporizers and on-board buffer canisters.

To fit your needs, multiple examples of precursors can be used with the Candi™ range:

  • Borophosphosilicate Glass (BPSG) processes: Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), Triethyl phosphate (TEPO), Triethylborane (TEB), etc.
  • Low-k dielectrics: Tetramethylsilane (4MS), Tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS), Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS), BCHD, etc.
  • High-k dielectrics: DMAI, TDMAS, 4DMAS, etc.
  • Low-T SiN/SiO: HCDS, SAM.24™, BTBAS, etc.
  • TCO process: DEZ
  • High k dielectrics: TMA
  • Si sources: HMDSO, HMDSN

Other highly viscous precursors are also taken care of with the “Candi™ Solvent”.


  • High level of safety and reliability for continuous supply of liquid precursors to the customer tool.
  • Patented empty shuttle canister detection for maximum chemical use.
  • Customized signal interface adapted to your equipment.

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Candi™ Phase 2

Candi™ Phase 2 is fitted with an internal day tank that allows the continuous distribution of the liquid precursors at a steady pressure, including during shuttle canister change-out. There are several Candi™ Phase 2 solutions: from the Candi™ Lite for research & R&D to the Candi™ Phase 2 pyrophoric with increased safety features.

Candi™ Phase 2 features

  • Back-up distribution mode for improved reliability
  • Precise delivery control (+/- 50 mbar) for the most demanding applications
  • System adapts to any SEMI-compliant shuttle canister up to 40 L

Candi™ Phase 2 Pyrophoric

  • Dedicated design for pyrophoric precursors:
  • Fire sensor
  • Nitrogen deluge system
  • Automatic exhaust damper, and a drain line.
  • Liquid sealant tank and a knock-out tank on the vent line

Options for the Candi™ Phase 2 and Candi™ Phase 2 Pyrophoric

  • On-board vacuum pump
  • 4 process outlets
  • Degassing device
  • Multiple communication protocols available
  • Start-up and operator training

Candi™ Bulk

Candi™ Bulk is compatible with large shuttle containers (up to 200 L) and includes a bigger day tank suited for bulk use. A pyrophoric version is also available.


Candi™ Bulk features

  • Back-up distribution mode for improved reliability
  • Precise delivery control (+/- 50 mbar) for the most demanding applications
  • System adapts to any SEMI-compliant shuttle canister up to 200 L
  • Dedicated design for pyrophoric precursors:
    • Fire sensor
    • 2 auto-switching shuttle tanks and a bigger day tank

Candi™ Solvent

Air Liquide’s Candi™ Solvent is designed to provide you with a continuous supply of viscous and highly reactive very-low vapor pressure liquid precursors at consistent pressure. Candi™ Solvent performs patented solvent cleaning for contamination-free distribution and increased safety. Solvent cleaning eliminates any risk of clogging, ensures safe shuttle drum change-out, and prevents the contamination of precursors that are sensitive to air and moisture.


Our solution

Our solution works with a wide range of precursors:

  • Gate oxide processes: PET, TBTDET, TDEAH, TEMAH, HTB, etc.
  • DRAM: TEMAZ, HyALD™, ZyALD™, etc.
  • Barrier metals: TDMAT, TDEAT, TBTDET, etc.
  • Ultra-low T SiN: AHEAD™, etc. 

Candi™ Solvent features

  • System adapts to any SEMI-compliant shuttle canister up to 40L
  • Up to 5-Gallon waste and solvent tank in separate enclosure
  • Back-up distribution mode for improved reliability
  • Optical fiber day tank level monitoring
  • Precise delivery pressure control (± 50 mbar) for the most demanding applications
  • Valve Manifold Box (VMB) for distribution to multiple points of use
  • Chemical purge sequence compliant with live chemicals
  • Ethernet communication port for SCADA monitoring

Gaseous distribution of liquid precursors - Candi™ Bubbler

The Candi bubbler closely controls the temperature and pressure while bubbling a carrier gas through a liquid precursor. This allows Candi to ensure consistent gas flow and precursor concentration to the downstream reactor process.
The Candi™ Bubbler is used to saturate by bubbling a carrier gas such as Helium or Nitrogen with liquid precursor and distribute it at a steady concentration and pressure to a Point-of-Use (POU).



  • Unsurpassed performance : Up to 30 liters/minute (12% TMGa in carrier gas) with variable flow rate and stable concentration allows Individual bubbler or centralised distribution
  • Fits your needs : Candi™ Bubbler can either include shuttle canister up to 20 liters inside the cabinet or be fed with an external liquid source

Efficient & easy-to-use: you just need to enter on the touch screen the precursor concentration and the total flow rate requested at the POU. 


  • Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
  • Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
  • Epitaxiy (EPI) 

Equipment designed for the semiconductor, fiber optic, coating, solar and  compound semiconductor industries, where safety, purity, accuracy and consistency are critical to your process.

Example of bubbled precursor:

  • TMA - TriMethylAluminium - Al2(CH3)6
  • TMGa/TMG - TriMethylGallium -  Ga(CH3)3
  • Trichlorosilane - HCl3Si
  • Tetrachlorosilane - SiCl4
  • Germanium chloride - GeCl4

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